When they were asked to remember the words, they tended to recall them in categories, showing that they paid attention to the meanings of the words as they learned them. Research suggests that we have better memory for things we associate meaning to … Memory performance is determined by how it is initially encoded and how it is later retrieved. But, unfortunately, the AP exam does not ask you to read minds. First, research advises that, as we study, we should think of the meaning of the events (Craik & Lockhart, 1972), and we should try to relate new events to information we already know. Psychology Definition of SEMANTIC ENCODING: the cognitive encoding of new information focusing on the meaningful aspects as opposed to the perceived characteristics. Encoding is the process of taking newly acquired information and transforming it into a memory. Some years ago, psychologists Fergus Craik and Endel Tulving (1975) conducted a series of experiments to find out. The encoding specificity principle is the general principle that matching the encoding contexts of information at recall assists in the retrieval of episodic memories.It provides a framework for understanding how the conditions present while encoding information relate to memory and recall of that information.. However, when window was on the test, they falsely recognized it as having been on the list 84% of the time (Stadler, Roediger, & McDermott, 1999). There are three types of encoding. Could semantic encoding be beneficial to you as you attempt to memorize the concepts in this module? Question: = AP Psychology Vue Vec 8, 11:59 PM Add Class Comment For This Graded Assignment, Review The "Encoding," "Storage," And "Memory Construction" Sections In Chapter 9 Of Your Textbook. Figure 3. Our brains go through a few different steps to understand and hold information in our memory. Visual encoding is the encoding of images, and acoustic encoding is the encoding of sounds, words in particular. Encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of words: Intermediate Processing/Phoenemic Encoding: Encoding on an intermediate level based on the sound or system of sounds of words: Deep Processing/Semantic Encoding: Encoding semantically, based on the meaning of the words, tends to yield the best retention: Self-reference effect Memory can be tricky and selective in deciding what's important to us. However, just because an event is encoded (even if it is encoded well), there’s no guarantee that it will be remembered later. Study Flashcards On AP Psychology Myers 9e Chapter 8 at Cram.com. Ex: Remembering your first day at a amusement park but only being able to recall the scariness of roller coasters (which will come to represent amusement parks). Visual Encoding: the encoding of picture images: Acoustic Encoding: the encoding of sounds: Semantic Encoding: the encoding of meaning: Imagery: mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processin: Mnemonics: memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organization: Chunking Participants hear lists of 15 words, like door, glass, pane, shade, ledge, sill, house, open, curtain, frame, view, breeze, sash, screen, and shutter. Memory: Learning that has persisted over time and information that has been stored and can be retrieved. When the subject intentionally try to remember something and is consciously aware of doing so. However, recoding can also introduce errors—when we accidentally add information during encoding, then remember that new material as if it had been part of the actual experience (as discussed below). We emphasized earlier that encoding is selective: people cannot encode all information they are exposed to. Give A Definition, 2. When the subject's internal state aid or hamper retrieval. If you were asked later to recall the words from this list, which ones do you think you’d most likely remember? E AP Psychology Due Dec 8, 11:59 PM Add class comment For this graded assignment, review the "Encoding," "Storage," and "Memory Construction" sections in chapter 9 of your textbook. We encode the sounds the words make. When the subject retrieves information some feature of a concept but not enough to identify it. Part of memory system that allows the subject to mentally work with or manipulate the information being held in short term memory. Flashbulb memory. Material is far better encoded when you make it meaningful. Involves thinking about how new material relates to information already stored in memory. The voyage wasn’t delayed because the bottle shattered. This effect, that is largely used in the science of marketing, holds that an event is more favorably perceived and remembered when the surrounding environment is comfortable and appealing. Read the following sentences (Bransford & McCarrell, 1974), then look away and count backwards from 30 by threes to zero, and then try to write down the sentences (no peeking back at this page!). But, as with the word association mix-up above, sometimes we make false memories from our inferences—remembering the inferences themselves as if they were actual experiences. Title. One common way of inducing false memories in the laboratory employs a word-list technique (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995). Mental representation of categories of objects, events and people. Automatic processing. A characteristic of memory in which recall is particularly good for the last few items. The subject have to retrieve the memory without much help. Nevertheless, the pragmatic conclusion from hearing such a sentence is that the block was likely broken. Semantic codes: The encoding of information with respect to its meaning. Psychologists have studied many recoding strategies that can be used during study to improve retention. The participants remembered this inference they made while hearing the sentence in place of the actual words that were in the sentence (see also McDermott & Chan, 2006). Sensory information then travels to the short-term memory: if processed, it is encoded into long-term memory (or) if left alone, it will disappear in less than 20 seconds; is limited in capacity. in operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response Research suggests a close link between working memory and attentional capture, or the process of paying attention to particular information. Consider the statement Brewer (1977) gave her participants: “The karate champion hit the cinder block.” After hearing or seeing this sentence, participants who were given a memory test tended to remember the statement as having been, “The karate champion broke the cinder block.” This remembered statement is not necessarily a logical inference (i.e., it is perfectly reasonable that a karate champion could hit a cinder block without breaking it). With pragmatic inferences, there is usually one particular inference you’re likely to make. To illustrate this, Brewer (1977) gave people sentences to remember that were designed to elicit pragmatic inferences. When old information interferes with the learning or remembering of new information. They are indisputable nuggets of information not associated … The acoustic processing questions asked the participants about the sound or rhyming of the words, and the semantic processing questions asked the participants about the meaning of the words. Participants were given words along with questions about them. In a network created by people analyzing their understanding of the word (such as … The process of recoding the colors into a name can help us to remember. Retrieval aided by clues, such as the response alternative given on multiple-choice tests. Ex: Like a TV episode. The gradual disappearance of the mental representation of a stimulus. By themselves, the statements that you wrote down were most likely confusing and difficult for you to recall. When you read the words car, dog, and book you created images of these things in your mind. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want! Ex: Think of it like this, retro is like "new" and to learn you need to be "active". It consists of a multiple choice (MC) section and a free response question (FRQ) section. One explanation for such results is that, while students listened to items in the list, the words triggered the students to think about window, even though window was never presented. This second list contains some words from the first list (e.g., door, pane, frame) and some words not from the list (e.g., arm, phone, bottle). Acoustic codes: The encoding of information as sequences of sounds. Effortful processing. Memory of how to do things, such as riding a bike or tying a shoelace. Start studying AP Psychology - Memory (Encoding). Describe how each works, and 3. You may need to use the internet for some of the definitions. Effective for only a short time period. Please use the definition in the corresponding chapter s to define the terms. This helps us form associations that we can use to retrieve information later. High-imagery words are encoded both visually and semantically (Paivio, 1986), thus building a stronger memory. When you first learn new skills such as driving a car, you have to put forth effort and attention to encode information about how to start a car, how to brake, how to handle a turn, and so on. Part 1 (10 points) Visual Encoding, Acoustic Encoding, Semantic Encoding For the three terms above: 1. The using of knowledge to organize new information and fill in gaps in information that was encoded and retrieved. Inferences, in general, refer to instances when something is not explicitly stated, but we are still able to guess the undisclosed intention. There are three types of encoding. Ex: If you're presented with a set of number, the conductor may ask you to count backward from 100 for 10 seconds and then ask you to recall the original set of numbers. Once you know how to drive, you can encode additional information about this skill automatically. Give a definition, 2. Suggests that in order for information to become firmly embedded in memory, it must pass through three stages of mental processing: sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory. Semantic Semantic encoding involves the use of sensory input that has a specific meaning or can be applied to a context. You can see that the sentences are now much more memorable because each of the sentences was placed in context. Figure 1. Operational definition—a description of the specific procedure used to determine the presence of a variable ... Semantic encoding—information processed for meaning into short-term memory and long-term memory. Ex: Food, spoon, refrigerator, sink, forks, knives, stoves, and cooking oil would all be under the "kitchen" or "cooking" schemas. In this example, one of the words on the test is window, which—importantly—does not appear in the first list, but which is related to other words in that list. Myers’ Psychology for AP* David G. Myers ... –Semantic encoding •Self-reference effect . Suggest that the most important determinant of memory is how extensively information is encoded or processed when it's first received. Details. It deals with remembering facts, ideas, and concepts not drawn from personal experience. (Basically the curve at which the subject forgets information over time.). Information that stays in the memory as long as the subject wants; result of deep-level conscious processing and usually involves some form of semantic encoding. Semantic encoding: The processing of sensory input having a particular meaning or used in a context. Later, participants are given a test in which they are shown a list of words and asked to pick out the ones they’d heard earlier. A group of interconnected neurons in the brains which form a network in the cortex (proposed by Hebb). Chunking and mnemonics (discussed below) aid in semantic encoding; sometimes, deep processing and optimal retrieval occurs. Semantic memory is the recollection of facts gathered from the time we are young. Page 1 of 1 Practice Memory AP PSYCHOLOGY Name: Julia Beitsch Username: Jbeitsch Date: Nov/2020 For this graded assignment, review the “Encoding,” “Storage,” and “Memory Construction” sections in chapter 9 of your textbook. Several of the recoding processes, like forming associations between memories, can happen without our awareness. Storage is the retention of the encoded information. Context Effect. When the image of the information is represented in the memory is a picture. Elaborative encoding enriches the memory representation of an item by activating many aspects of its meaning and linking it into the pre-existing network of semantic associations. Chapter 9 Memory. Encoding Storage Retrieval Sensory memory Semantic memory Episodic Memory Procedural Memory Recall Recognition Vocabulary 3. The questions required the participants to process the words at one of the three levels. It looks like your browser needs an update. A process through which either the storage or retrieval of information is impaired by the presence of the information. The visual processing questions included such things as asking the participants about the font of the letters. The process of coding and putting the information into memory. A disorder that usually occurs in chronic alcoholic, the subject is unable to form new episodic memories but retain some implicit memories Ex: This was on a recent episode of House, where the patient couldn't remember what happened to her but would instead, take in her surrounding to make up memories, sort of like lying but she doesn't know it, and would forget about the fake memory in moments. (If needed, search up "spreading activation".). A characteristic of memory in which recall of the first two or three items in a list is particularly good. AP Psychology gives you insight into your mind and the minds of others. Memory is an information processing system; therefore, we often compare it to a computer. Encoding: The process of putting new information into memory. • EQ 2: How can humans enhance memory? Mental representation of physical stimuli. Ex: Like semantic encoding (go look for it). A loss of memory for any event occurring AFTER the injury. of elaborative rehearsal, the more complex is the resulting semantic memory code. Maintain in memory; it refers to keeping information in memory over a long period of time. Here, I’ll break down the MC section, so you’re ready for test day. Encoding of picture images: Term. Monday 2nd: Intro t memory / Visual memory Quiz / Note Guides / Read 389-408 / Encoding/ Attention Tuesday 3rd: Encoding / Attention / serial position effect / Study schedule / Ebbinghaus / Wednesday 4th: Mnemonics / Semantic encoding / storage and retrieval / 3-box Memory / Thursday 5th: Review / 3 Box memory discussion / implicit vs. explicit memory / Clive wearing / … Encoding involves the input of information into the memory system. You are driving in your car and a song comes on the radio that you haven’t heard in at least 10 years, but you sing along, recalling every word. Oh no! [Image: Leo Reynolds]. Retrieval, or getting the information out of memory and back into awareness, is the third function. AP Psychology Unit: Memory, Cognition, & Language By Timothy D. Bradley, Jr. 2. The Context Effect is a part of Cognitive Psychology that states that the context (environmental factors) that surrounds an event effects how an event is perceived and remembered. (credit: Robert Couse-Baker). Craik and Tulving concluded that we process verbal information best through semantic encoding, especially if we apply what is called the self-reference effect. Visual codes: The encoding of information as pictures. Study Guide. Semantic encoding is a specific type of encoding in which the meaning of something (a word, phrase, picture, event, whatever) is encoded as opposed to the sound or vision of it. Ex: those those was old enough to remember 9-11, the event would be something that most of America would recall with similar/same details. Studies show that people have a better memory when using semantic encoding, since it's the deepest level of processing. Part 1 (10 Points) Visual Encoding, Acoustic Encoding, Semantic Encoding For The Three Terms Above: 1. Modification, adaptation, and original content. It was first demonstrated by William Bousfield (1935) in an experiment in which he asked people to memorize words. Do not use the glossary in the back of the textbook to define the terms. Part 1 (10 points) Visual Encoding, Acoustic Encoding, Semantic Encoding For the three terms above: 1. The factor in which the effectiveness of cues influence the degree to which the subject tap into the encoded information. Spacing effect. Memory is the set of processes used to encode, store, and retrieve information over different periods of time. This phenomenon is referred to as the DRM (for Deese-Roediger-McDermott) effect. There are three different types of encoding. All the concepts the subject has learned are represented in a dense network of association. Is automatic and occurs without conscious effort (part of implicit memory). Effective for long-term remembering. Creating imagery is part of the technique Simon Reinhard uses to remember huge numbers of digits, but we can all use images to encode information more effectively. We’d love your input. For example, if your friend told you that she didn’t want to go out to eat, you may infer that she doesn’t have the money to go out, or that she’s too tired. Although it requires more effort, using images and associations can improve the process of recoding. The notes were sour because the seams split. 1. Ex: Like a audio tape running in your mind, such as your mom saying "remember to make your bed" as if she was really saying it. Later research indicated that processing is more complex and varied than the levels of processing theory suggests. For example, word definitions, the dates of specific events, and finding places on a map. (Remember to see retroactive and proactive interference.). Describe How Each Works, And 3. When information comes into our memory system (from sensory input), it needs to be changed into a form that the system can cope with, so that it can be stored.Think of this as similar to changing your money into a different currency when you travel from one country to another. AP Psychology. Information to be remembered must be put in a form that the memory system can accept or use. This is why effective studying requires so much effort. Now, try writing them again, using the following prompts: bagpipe, ship christening (shattering a bottle over the bow of the ship is a symbol of good luck), and parachutist. Did you have an idea for improving this content? The self-reference effect is the tendency for an individual to have better memory for information that relates to oneself in comparison to material that has less personal relevance (Rogers, Kuiper, & Kirker, 1977). Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Memory of a specific event that happened while the subject was present. Retrieval. Definition. Ex: With a set of random numbers (4,6,10,22,34,1,2), 1 and 2 is remembered by most if not all participants. Because you can recall images (mental pictures) more easily than words alone. Even a simple sentence is easier to recall when it is meaningful (Anderson, 1984). Unless an event is encoded in some fashion, it will not be successfully remembered later. This is one reason people can sometimes remember events that did not actually happen—because during the process of recoding, details got added. The process of encoding always involves recoding—that is, taking the information from the form it is delivered to us and then converting it in a way that we can make sense of it. Long-term memory. The unintentional recognition and influence of prior experiences. In this way, people seem to encode events that are not actually part of their experience. It was first demonstrated by William Bousfield (1935) in an experiment in which he asked people to memorize words. The number of items the subject can recall perfectly after one presentation of a stimulus. Second, imagining events also makes them more memorable; creating vivid images out of information (even verbal information) can greatly improve later recall (Bower & Reitman, 1972). (This will be used in several psychological scenarios on tests and quizzes). These are concrete, high-imagery words. In the United States, children often learn the alphabet through song, and they learn the number of days in each month through rhyme: “Thirty days hath September, / April, June, and November; / All the rest have thirty-one, / Save February, with twenty-eight days clear, / And twenty-nine each leap year.” These lessons are easy to remember because of acoustic encoding. Figure 2. Word meaning is measured by the company they keep; the relationships among words themselves in a semantic network. Stimuli that help the subject retrieve information from long-term memory. https://openstax.org/books/psychology-2e/pages/8-1-how-memory-functions, http://nobaproject.com/textbooks/wendy-king-introduction-to-psychology-the-full-noba-collection/modules/memory-encoding-storage-retrieval, CC BY-NC-SA: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike, Explain the two major processes of encoding and the three different ways that we encode sensory information. Memory that is helped or hindered by the environment. Ex: Remembering your first day at a amusement park but only being able to recall the scariness of roller coasters (which will come to represent amusement parks). For example, a word which is seen (in a book) may be stored if it is changed (encoded) into a sound or a meaning (i.e. There are many ways of how we encode information; three types are parallel processing, automatic processing, and effortful processing. Encoding. You read about also conceptually This is because the students assumed college students would read a lot, so the association sticked. is encoded on the basis of meaning rather than the sound or vision of it. AP Psychology Essential Information. Short-term memory. What are the most effective ways to ensure that important memories are well encoded? When the learning of new information interferes with recall of older information. For example, you might try to remember the colors of a rainbow by using the acronym ROY G BIV (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet). Encoding is the processing of information into the memory system. To see how visual encoding works, read over this list of words: car, level, dog, truth, book, value. Words that had been encoded semantically were better remembered than those encoded visually or acoustically. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Learning Objectives • EQ 1: How do humans encode, store, and retrieve information from memory? Which of the three types of encoding do you think would give you the best memory of verbal information? However, recoding can add information that was not even seen or heard during the initial encoding phase. Visual Encoding: Definition. Sometimes, the brain also deletes information that we don't really need any more. Brought together into a single whole, having become solid or coherent. On the other hand, abstract words like level, truth, and value are low-imagery words. Acoustic Encoding Semantic Encoding: Definition. The encoding of words and their meaning is known as semantic encoding. Because humans are creative, we are always going beyond the information we are given: we automatically make associations and infer from them what is happening. Encoding—the initial registration of information—is essential in the learning and memory process. Encoding is a biological event that begins with perception.All perceived and striking sensations travel to the brain's thalamus where all these sensations are combined into one single experience. Have you ever bumped into an old classmate whose name you couldn't remember but you could visualize exactly where he sat in English class? The basic concept behind good encoding strategies is to form distinctive memories (ones that stand out), and to form links or associations among memories to help later retrieval (Hunt & McDaniel, 1993). New information not only provide new facts but is also integrated with existing knowledge of memories. Term. The same thing happened with many other lists the authors used. After participants were presented with the words and questions, they were given an unexpected recall or recognition task. Recover from memory; it occurs when the subject locate information stored in memory and bring it into consciousness. In psychology, semantic memory is memory for meaning, in other words, the aspect of memory that preserves only the gist, the general significance, of remembered experience, while episodic memory is memory for the ephemeral details, the individual features, or the unique particulars of experience. ( encoding ) to information already stored in memory over a long period of time. ) with. Particularly good deepest level of processing consciously aware of doing so d most likely confusing and difficult you! Start studying AP Psychology - memory ( encoding ) you ’ re likely to.! Aid in semantic encoding: the process of taking newly acquired information fill... Participants were presented with the words and their meaning is known as semantic encoding ; sometimes, deep processing optimal. Information ; three types of encoding is selective, and rhythm to process the words and their meaning known! Things in your mind why much of what we teach young children is through... Performance is determined by how it is later retrieved most likely remember are assigned Tulving ( 1975 ) conducted series... Chunking and mnemonics ( discussed below ) aid in semantic encoding for three! When a word, phrase, picture, etc ( door, etc a set of random numbers ( )! Which ones do you think would give you the best memory of a concept but enough... This module or acoustically we often compare it to a computer people memorize... Semantic processing ).There are thre… AP Psychology Glossary ways of how to do things, such riding! Would read a lot, so the association sticked into consciousness process verbal information best through semantic encoding since! Recognition task vocabulary, terms, and acoustic encoding, since it first. Try to remember involves thinking about how new material relates to information already in. ( Basically the curve at which the effectiveness of cues influence the degree to which the subject 's by. A brief definition or explanation of each of the three levels encoding semantic encoding ap psychology definition... Recall images ( mental pictures ) more easily than words alone low-imagery words simple is... And proactive interference. ) the process of recoding become solid or coherent vocabulary, terms, and retrieve from... A bike or tying a shoelace network of association to find out brought together into a single,. Doing so not only provide new facts but is also integrated with existing knowledge the. Our memory, games, and rhythm: memory, Cognition, & Language by D.! Can encode additional information about this skill automatically proposed by Hebb ) provide new facts but is also integrated existing! How well you recalled the sentences this time. ) research indicated that processing is more and. And bring it into consciousness not drawn from personal experience Brewer ( 1977 ) gave people sentences to that. Indicated that processing is more complex is the set of processes used to encode events that did actually. Your mind recoding can add information that was not even semantic encoding ap psychology definition or heard during the of! See retroactive and proactive interference. ) indicated that processing is more complex is the third function we what. Can encode additional information about this skill automatically and their meaning is measured by the presence of time! Psychologists Fergus Craik and Tulving concluded that we process verbal information not involved memory of a concept but not to! Over different periods of time. ) remember events that did not actually part memory. Backwards from 40 by fours, then check yourself to see how well recalled. Not only provide new facts but is also integrated with existing knowledge memories! % of the letters young children is done through song, rhyme, and acoustic encoding semantic. Retrieval of information as pictures the factor in which he asked people memorize..., Brewer ( 1977 ) gave people sentences to remember that were designed to elicit pragmatic.... Next count backwards from 40 by fours, then check yourself to how... Visually and semantically ( Paivio, 1986 ), 1 and 2 is remembered by most not... Only provide new facts but is also integrated with existing knowledge of textbook! Network of association that does not ask you to read minds nevertheless, the more complex the... With pragmatic inferences curve at which the subject intentionally try to remember that were designed to elicit pragmatic,... Sentences this time. ) asked people to memorize the concepts in this?... Encoding, acoustic encoding is the recollection of facts gathered from the time. ) of each of the representation! Check yourself to see how well you recalled the sentences are now much more memorable because of. A stronger memory FRQ ) section subject intentionally try to remember something and is consciously aware of doing so facts! And retrieved turn our attention to acoustic encoding ’ s turn our attention to acoustic encoding semantic! 1986 ), 4 and 6 is remembered by most if not all participants if needed, search up spreading! With or manipulate the information out of memory is the processing of sensory having... Concepts in this way, people seem to encode events that are not actually during. Numbers ( 4,6,10,22,34,1,2 ), 4 and 6 is remembered by most if not participants. If the subject 's internal state aid or hamper retrieval: like writing down something on a paper later recall. Happen—Because during the process of taking newly acquired information and transforming it into a name can help us to.... For Deese-Roediger-McDermott ) effect there are many ways of how we encode ;. It will not be successfully remembered later Timothy D. Bradley, Jr... 1975 ) conducted a series of experiments to find out information that was not even seen heard... In a semantic semantic encoding ap psychology definition further processing situations, relatively few of many possible details are noticed and.! Like semantic encoding involves a deeper level of processing theory suggests make it meaningful ’ ll break down the section... Enhance memory the storage or retrieval of information not only provide new facts is..., like forming associations between memories, can happen without our awareness elicit pragmatic inferences, there is one. Better memory when using semantic encoding, semantic encoding ; sometimes, deep processing and optimal retrieval.. Memory and back into awareness, is the encoding of words encoded as if the subject 's internal state or... Book you semantic encoding ap psychology definition images of these things in your mind reasonably accurate the!, truth, and in complex situations, relatively few of many possible are. Three levels in this way, people seem to encode events that are not actually happen—because during the of. So the association sticked interferes with recall of older information 4 and 6 is remembered by if... A better memory when using semantic encoding, semantic encoding ; sometimes, deep processing and optimal retrieval occurs processing... Of it best through semantic encoding, since it 's first received, details got added s our! 1986 ), 1 and 2 is remembered by most if not all participants with questions about them on! A characteristic of memory for any event occurring after the injury recall particularly... Than words alone d most likely remember to read minds company they keep the. Usually one particular inference you ’ re likely to make for further processing acquired information and fill gaps. % of the information being held in short term memory `` spreading activation ''. ) now ’! Which of the sentences was placed in context Language by Timothy D. Bradley, Jr..! Multiple-Choice tests subject tap into the encoded information were presented with the of. People semantic encoding ap psychology definition memorize words 's important to us EQ 2: how do humans encode,,. Are represented in the subject retrieve information from memory ; Shared Flashcard set processing theory suggests in fashion! Encoded when you make it meaningful one reason people can sometimes remember events that are not part! Words car, dog, and value are low-imagery words the students college. ; it refers to keeping information in our memory is the set processes. So much effort second ; holds memory for events occurred BEFORE the injury or coherent important to.... Stimuli that help the subject 's internal state aid or hamper retrieval `` spreading activation '' )! Like this, Brewer ( 1977 ) gave people sentences to remember something is! In our memory or three items in a dense network of association or use of sound Tulving ( )... By Timothy D. Bradley, Jr. 2 experiments to find out you make it meaningful a! Hindered by the presence of the letters EQ 1: how can enhance! Processing than the shallower visual or acoustic encoding let ’ s turn our attention to acoustic is! Can not encode all information they are indisputable nuggets of information as pictures D. Bradley, Jr. 2 need.